Dental bone grafting is an oral surgical procedure done by an oral surgeon to support the bone where it is missing and needed. The need for a bone graft comes when the jawbone associated with missing teeth atrophies or is reabsorbed. This can occur due to gum disease, infections, or trauma. Not only does gum disease lead to tooth and gum tissue loss, it will eventually lead to bone loss if not treated immediately or properly.
Bone grafting can repair implant sites with inadequate bone structure due to previous extractions, gum disease or injuries. With the advancement of technology, bone tissue or grafting materials can now be obtained in another person’s body (autogenous bone graft), from an animal donor (xenogenic bone graft), or even from a cadaver source (allogenic bone graft). However, bone tissue from sources other yourself needs to be treated first in the laboratory to make them sterile and safe.
Major bone grafts are typically performed to repair deformities of the jaw. These deformities may result from a series of issues: traumatic injuries, tumor surgery, or congenital defects. Large defects are repaired using the patient’s own bone, also known as autogenous bone graft. This bone is harvested from a number of different sites depending on the size of the defect. The skull (cranium), hip (iliac crest), and lateral knee (tibia) are common donor sites. Bone grafting increases the success rates of dental implants, especially if you have already experienced bone loss. These procedures are routinely performed in an operating room and require a hospital stay.